Henry Bull & Martha Smith
1813 to 1862, Royston and Enfield
Henry Bull was born in 1818 in , son of Joseph Bull and Elizabeth Nicholson.

Henry moved to in Middlesex, about 50 km south of Royston. It is not clear when he moved but it was probably either because the family moved there after his father died (at only 29) or in his mid to late teens between about 1830 and 1842.

Henry worked for Mr Smith in the Enfield area (Turkey Street?) before marrying his daughter Martha Sarah Smith in 1842. Henry is described in the register of births in Enfield and in the 1861 census as a farmer, implying he also had tenure of land.

Henry and Martha married, not in Enfield, but at St Giles Cripplegate (on London Wall, now in the Barbican Center near the Museum of London). A witness at the wedding was Charles Peter Smith, Martha's brother.

There must have been a reason to marry so far from home. Martha's parents were also married there in 1815, despite both living in Enfield and despite all family christenings and funerals being recorded at St Andrew's in Enfield. What was the connection with St Giles Cripplegate?

The family lived in which runs from Myddleton Ho to Enfield Wash, north of Enfield in what was then a small village called Forty Hill. Their house had a high stone wall and "the boys sat on it to throw mud at the Methodists". ref 2

It is interesting to note that Turkey Street lies between Bulls Cross and Bullsmoor.

Henry and Martha had 7 sons but Charles, the twin of Frederick, died shortly after he was born.

 
G3 Henry Bull (1813-1891)
= 1842
Martha Sarah Smith
(1816-1893)
 
 
G2 Henry
(1843-1919)
= 1874
Martha Tonks
(1850-1920)
George
(1845-1906)
= 1871
Hannah Foster
(1850-1927)
Charles
(1848-1848)
Frederick
(1848-1928)
= 1876
Ursula Mary Jackson
(1856-1904)
Walter
(1850-1928)
= 1879
Louisa Margaret "Maggie" Shepherd
(1862-1929)
Albert Smith
(1853-1906)
= 1882
Sophia Pricillia Mead
(1862 - 1947)
 
Ansley
(1855-1944)
= 1880
Kate Mary Taylor
(1859-1925)
 

Not a lot is known about their life in Enfield. It must be remembered that then, Enfield was a rural village isolated from London and remained that way until well into the 20th C. The railway didn't reach there until the 1890s, but as it was positioned on the London to Cambridge Road it would have had a coach service. See "Forty Hill a History" for information on the area's history. The rural nature can be seen in the 1881 map in Old-Maps co.uk (enter "Enfield Wash" and select enlarged view). You can also view an aerial photo of the area, note that the road in the photo running N to S to the left is the A10, built since 1881.

The church obviously played an important part in their lives. The families' christenings were recorded in the St. Andrew's church in Enfield, but it is likely that the actual christenings were at Jesus Church in Forty Hill (which opened in 1835), nearer to their home. This is confirmed in family records.ref 2

The boys were educated at the Free Grammar School in Enfield.

In a "Personal Narration", Henry (jr) says "...a short time before leaving England [in Oct 1862] I had bought a Wesleyan Hymn Book and regularly attended the services at Hackney Road Chapel....". It may seem a strange place to go to church, but (zoom out to see relative locations) in North London, about 10 miles in a direct line from Enfield. Looking at the 1881 map (see above), the road to London, the Hertford Road, ran near to their home and past the end of . It would be interesting to know how he got there - coach, horse, foot ... ?

Henry Bull
Henry Bull
1861 Census
In the 1861 Census, Henry (Farmer) and all of his family except Henry (jr) were living in Turkey Street. George and Frederick are listed as "Gun Makers", as were a number of their neighbours. The Royal Small Arms Factory, established in 1804 was then manufacturing and assembling the "Brown Bess" muskets which were the main firearm of the British Empire for many years. The factory was at probably no more than 2 miles from their home (Turkey Street is top left in map).

It is not possible to absolutely identify Henry (jr) in the 1861 census, but there is a Henry Bull of the correct age and place of birth, a "Tallow Chandler", living in a Soap and Candle Factory in East Street, Shoreditch, very close to the Hackney Road Chapel. It is very likely that this is him and is the reason for him attending a church so far from home (or he could have worked there to make it easier to attend the church?). A curious thing about the factory is that all of the workers were listed as nieces and nephews of the owner!

NameEst bornBirth placeRel.
Albert Bullabt 1853EnfieldSon
Ansley Bullabt 1856EnfieldSon
Frederick Bullabt 1848EnfieldSon
George Bullabt 1845EnfieldSon
Henry Bullabt 1817Royston, Camb.Head
Sarah Bullabt 1820EnfieldWife
Walter Bullabt 1850EnfieldSon
1861 Census records, Turkey Street, St James, Enfield:

NameEst bornBirth placeRel.
Emma A Fontaineabt 1815Headingham, EssexHead
Mary A Baconabt 1841HuntingdonshireSister
Henry Bullabt 1844EnfieldNephew
and others
1861 Census records, East Street, Hoxton Old Town, Shoreditch, London:
Emigration to New Zealand, 1862
The family history says that the family decided to emigrate, partly as Henry was drinking too much and partly as a result of having read Swiss Family Robinson (the book is still with a family member). ref 2

The family stayed in London with Charles Peter Smith and Joseph Bull, Martha and Henry's brothers, while waiting for the ship. ref 2

In July 1862 the family embarked on the Queen of the Mersey, leaving London on the 3rd July and arriving at Lyttelton in New Zealand on the 19th October. They had a good trip with favourable winds but the deaths of ten children and a mutiny must have marred the voyage:

From Lyttelton, Henry and the four eldest sons walked over the Bridle Path, while Martha and the three younger boys went by boat to Ferrymead. ref 2

Hannah Foster, George's wife emigrated on the Greyhound with her family. The Greyhound departed from London January 21st 1865 and arrived at Lyttleton May 7th 1865.

"The deaths of ten infants have occurred on the voyage, measles having at one time being prevalent among the children."

"A serious mutiny took place amongst a portion of the crew during the voyage. The cause of the offence was the old story "grog" some of the crew having contrived to broach cargo and get at the spirits. After the men were in irons we hear that the Captain was violently assaulted and struck by one of the sailors with the handcuffs, by which he was seriously hurt. The men, five in number were handed over to the police as soon as the vessel anchored."

The voyage of "The Queen of the Mersey"

Christchurch, New Zealand, 1862 to 1891
From 1862 to 1864 Henry and Martha lived in a small house in Christchurch on the corner of Durham and Lichfield Streets (opposite St Michael's church). ref 2

Enfield Villa
"Enfield Villa"
In 1864 Henry bought a property at ; a market garden of one acre and a house named Enfield Villa, probably the land between Burke, Selwyn and Ruskin Streets and the walkway shown on the map.

Apparently this was against the wishes of Martha who would have preferred to have purchased land in the back country. ref 2

The house, "Enfield Villa" is still there (1995, see photo) but the market garden has been subdivided. Henry remained a market gardener there until his death in 1891.

Henry tried his hand at gold mining on the WestCoast, but apparently got nothing other than a broken arm. ref 2

The Bull's house was close to their friends, the Taylor's, in Harman Street (see the top left corner of the map, between Harman and Dickens Streets). As both families were Methodists, they probably met through the local Addington Methodist Church.

Between 1871 and 1882 all of six boys married and George, Albert and Ansley continued to live nearby. Henry who became a Methodist Minister in 1867 moved around New Zealand, Frederick moved to the country, eventually settling near Waddington and Walter moved to Dunedin about 1878.

George, Frederick and Albert all became butchers, a tradition carried on among Henry's descendants until the present day. There is no earlier record of butchers in either the Bull or Smith families.

Walter became a fruiterer, greengrocer and seedsman in Dunedin, owning a shop on the corner of Princess and High Streets and another in George Street.

Ansley was a saddler, and after his marriage became the Manager of the Farmers store in Christchurch.

Henry & Martha's Death, 1891 to 1893
Gravestone
Henry & Martha's Gravestone
Henry died on the 26th August 1891 aged 78, of cardiac dropsy (edema) and dyspepsia. He was described in his obituary in the NZ Methodist as "Naturally quiet and retiring in his disposition, yet he led an active and vigorous life to the last and after only three day's illness.".

Martha died two years later aged 77, on the 26th June 1893 and was described in her obituary as "..a woman of considerable power and force of character..".

They are buried together in the Addington cemetery, only 200 meters from their home (shown on the map between Fairfield Avenue and Disraeli Street). They are buried in a family plot, together with their son Albert Smith Bull's family (who also lived nearby) and the grave of Elizabeth Yates, probably Henry's sister.

In Henry's will (of June 1891) he leaves his property to Martha for the term of her life, and then equally to five of their six sons and with a curious clause leaving a one sixth share "..for the use and benefit of the children of my much loved but lamented son George Bull..". George was still alive but had been declared bankrupt in 1889, presumably this clause was to ensure the money did not go to George's creditors! Henry left £407.16.6.

Note that Henry's birth-date of 22 September 1813 (shown on the gravestone and also in his obituary in "The New Zealand Methodist") differs from that in the IGI database which shows his christening at Royston to be 25th January 1813. In the 1861 census, both Henry and Martha's ages are 4 years too low - perhaps as they needed to be below a certain age to qualify for assisted emmigration.

Notes & References
  1. IGI
  2. Bull family History